Tuesday, August 3, 2010

History of Wayang Kulit

Wayang shadow-puppet (Bali, early 20th century)Enlarge picture
Wayang shadow-puppet (Bali, early 20th century)

Wayang is a generic term denoting traditional theatre in Indonesia. There is no evidence that wayang existed before Hinduism came to Southeast Asia sometime in the first century CE. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says "si Galigi mawayang," or "Sir Galigi played wayang". From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bima from the Mahabharata.

Hinduism arrived in Indonesia from India even before the Christian era, and was slowly adopted as the local belief system. Sanskrit became the literary and court language of Java and later of Bali. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories either fell into oblivion or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays.

The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time, for example, the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali. They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today.

When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders converted the wayang golek into wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the shadow instead of the figures itself. Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow picture was displayed, the birth of the wayang kulit.

The figures are painted, flat woodcarvings (a maximum of 5 to 15 mm thick -- barely half an inch) with movable arms. The head is solidly attached to the body. Wayang klitikcan be used to perform puppet plays either during the day or at night. This type of wayang is relatively rare.

Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

Wayang kulit

Wayang kulit as seen from the shadow sideEnlarge picture
Wayang kulit as seen from the shadow side

Wayang kulit, shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, and Kelantan and Terengganu in Malaysia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.

The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or the Serat Menak. The island of Lombok has developed its own style of Serat Menak called Wayang Sasak.

There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; they are sometimes referred to as "clown-servants" because they normally are associated with the story's hero, and provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar is the father of Gareng (oldest son), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later, possibly to introduce mystical aspects of Islam into the Hindu-Javanese stories. They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs.

The puppets figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta (Solo) is most famous and is the most commonly imitated style of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in West Java, Banyumas, Cirebon, Semarang, and East Java. Bali produces more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years.

Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations.

The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto kulit (skin or parchment), providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week.

The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather.

Wayang topeng or wayang gedog or wayang wong

An act in the wayang wong performance.Enlarge picture
An act in the wayang wong performance.

Wayang wong is a type of theatrical performance with themes from the kingdom of Jenggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog. The word "gedog" comes from "kedok", which, like "topeng" means "mask". The main theme is the story of Raden Panji and Candra. This is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana's story was given the title "Smaradahana" ("The fire of love"). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names "Sri Kameswara", "Prabu Suryowiseso", and "Hino Kertapati". Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well.

Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:

For male performers:

  • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. For example, the dance of Arjuna, Puntadewa and all other slimly built Kshatriyas. There are two types of movement, lanyap and luruh.
  • Gagah:
    • Kambeng: a more athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Ghatotkacha.
    • Bapang: gagah and kasar for the warriors of Kaurawa.
    • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja.
  • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying ogres and demons.
  • Gecul: ponokawan and cantrik
    • Kambeng dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Hanuman.
    • Kalang kinantang dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Sugriwa and Subali.

For female performers: Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, Kshatriyas, monks, princesses, The movements known as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical high style of dance consist of nine basic movements (joged pokok) and twelve other movements (joged gubahan and joged wirogo) and are used in portraying Bedoyo and Srimpi.

Today, the wayang wong, following the Gagrak style of Surakarta, is danced by women. They follow the alus movements associated with a Kshatriya, resembling Arjuna. Following the Gagkra style from Yogyakarta a male dancer uses these same Alus movements to depict princes and generals. There are about 45 distinct character types.

Wayang Golek or Rod Puppets

A pair of wayang golek from JavaEnlarge picture
A pair of wayang golek from Java

Wayang golek are wooden doll puppets that are operated from below by rods connected to the hands and a central control rod that runs through the body to the head. The simple construction of the puppets belies their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Little is known for certain about the history of wayang golek, but scholars have speculated that it most likely originated in China and arrived in Java sometime in the 17th century. Some of the oldest traditions of wayang golek are from the north coast of Java in what is called the pasisir region. This is home to some of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Java and it is likely the wayang golek grew in popularity through telling the wayang menak stories of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. These stories are still widely performed in Kabumen, Tegal, and Jepara as wayang golek menak, and in Cirebon, wayang golek cepak. Legendary origins of wayang golek attribute their invention to the Muslim saint Wali Sunan Kudus, who used the medium to prosletize Muslim values. In the 18th century the tradition moved into the mountains of West Java where it eventually was used to tell stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabarata in a tradtion now called wayang golek purwa, which can be found in Bandung, Bogor and Jakarta. Wayang golek purwa has become the most popular form of wayang golek today and the most famous puppeteer family is the Sunarya family which has produced several generations of stellar performers.

Wayang karucil or wayang klitik

Wayang klitik image of Batara GuruEnlarge picture
Wayang klitik image of Batara Guru

Wayang klitik figures occupy a middle ground between the figures of wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures, but from thin pieces of wood instead of leather, and, like wayang kulit figures, are used as shadow puppets. A further similarity is that they are the same smaller size as wayang kulit figures. However, wood is more subject to breakage than leather. During battle scenes, wayang klitik figures often sustain considerable damage, much to the amusement of the public, but in a country in which before 1970 there were no adequate glues available, breakage generally meant an expensive, newly made figure. On this basis the wayang klitik figures, which are to appear in plays where they have to endure battle scenes, have leather arms. The name of these figures is onomotopaeic, from the sound klitik-klitik, that these figures make when worked by the dalang.

Wayang klitik figures come originally from eastern Java, where one still finds workshops turning them out. They are less costly to produce than wayang kulit figures.

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit. From Jenggala and Kediri come the stories of Raden Panji and Cindelaras, which tells of the adventures of a pair of village youngsters with their fighting cocks. The Damarwulan presents the stories of a hero (Damarwulan) from Majapahit. Damarwulan is a clever chap, who with courage, aptitude, intelligence and the assistance of his young lover Anjasmara, makes a surprise attack on the neighboring kingdom and brings down Minakjinggo, an Adipati (viceroy) of Blambangan and mighty enemy of Majapahit's beautiful queen Sri Ratu Kencanawungu. As a reward, Damarwulan is married to Kencanawungu and becomes king of Majapahit; he also takes Lady Anjasmara as a second wife. This story is full of love affairs and battles and is very popular with the public. The dalang is liable to incorporate the latest local gossip and quarrels and work them into the play as comedy.

Wayang beber

Wayang Museum in Jakarta (Jakarta Kota Railway Station area)Enlarge picture
Wayang Museum in Jakarta (Jakarta Kota Railway Station area)

The wayang beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form of illustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fate – they have nearly vanished. A few scrolls of images remain from those times, found today in museums. Performances, mostly in small auditoriums, take place according to the following pattern:

The dalang gives a sign, the gamelan orchestra (or a musician with a violin-like instrument) begins to play and the Dalang unrolls a picture related to the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the story in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several pictures. The pictures are shown one at a time and are successively unrolled. Each picture represents a story or part of a story. The content of the story typically stems from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Jenggala stories or profane stories from other villages and kingdoms.

Wayang Sadat

This newly developed form is used by teachers of Islam to show the principles of Muslim ethics and religion to the natives of Java and Bali. [1]

Wayang Wahyu

This form was created in the 1960s by Brother Timotheus L. Wignyosoebroto who wanted to impress the natives with the teachings of the Catholic Church. In the beginning, the puppets were often made of paper because it was less expensive than the traditional water buffalo hide. It became a popular as an alternative method of telling Bible stories.[2]

Resources : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Wayang+kulit

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RADEN GATOTKACA

Raden Gatotkaca

Raden Gatotkaca adalah putera Raden Wrekudara yang kedua. Ibunya seorang putri raksasa bernama Dewi Arimbi di Pringgandani. Waktu dilahirkan Gatotkaca berupa raksasa, karena sangat saktinya tidak ada senjata yang dapat memotong tali pusatnya. Kemudian tali pusat itu dapat juga dipotong dengan senjata Karna yang bernama Kunta, tetapi sarung senjata itu masuk ke dalam perut Gatotkaca, dan menambah lagi kesaktiannya.
Dengan kehendak dewa-dewa, bayi Gatotkaca itu dimasak seperti bubur dan diisi dengan segala kesaktian; karena. itu Raden Gatotkaca berurat kawat, bertulang besi, berdarah gala-gala, dapat terbang di awan dan duduk di atas awan yang melintang. Kecepatan Gatotkaca pada waktu terbang di awan bagai kilat dan liar bagai halilintar. Kesaktiannya dalam perang, dapat mencabut leher. musuhnya dengan digunakan pada saat yang penting. Gatotkaca diangkat jadi raja di Pringgadani dan ia disebut kesatria di Pringgadani, karena pemerintahan negara dikuasai oleh keturunan dari pihak perempuan. Dalam perang Baratayudha Gatotkaca tewas oleh senjata Kunta yang ditujukan kepada Gatotkaca. Ketika Gatotkaca bersembunyi dalam awan. Gatotkaca jatuh dari angkasa dan mengenai kereta kendaraan Karna hingga hancur lebur. Gatotkaca beristerikan saudara misan, bernama Dewi Pregiwa, puteri Raden Arjuna.


Dalam riwayat, Gatotkaca mati masih sangat muda, hingga sangat disesali oleh sekalian keluarganya.
Menurut kata dalang waktu Raden Gatotkaca akan mengawan, diucapkan seperti berikut :
Tersebutlah, pakaian Raden Gatotkaca yang juga disebut kesatria di Pringgadani: Berjamang mas bersinar-sinar tiga susun, bersunting mas berbentuk bunga kenanga dikarangkan berupa surengpati. (Surengpati berarti berani pada ajalnya. Sunting serupa ini juga dipakai untuk seorang murid waktu menerima ilmu dari gurunya bagi ilmu kematian, untuk lambang bah.wa orang yang menerima ilmu itu takkan takut pada kematiannya). Bergelung (sanggul) bentuk supit urang tersangga oleh praba, berkancing sanggul mas tua bentuk garuda membelakang dan bertali ulur-ulur bentuk naga terukir, berpontoh nagaraja, bergelang kana (gelang empat segi). Berkain (kampuh) sutera jingga, dibatik dengan lukisan seisi hutan, berikat-pinggang cindai hijau, becelana cindai biru, berkeroncong suasa bentuk nagaraja, uncal diberi emas anting.


Diceritakan, Raden Gatotkaca waktu akan berjalan ia berterumpah Padakacarma, yang membuatnya dapat terbang tanpa sayap. Bersongkok Basunanda, walaupun pada waktu panas terik takkan kena panas, bila hujan tak kena air hujan. Diceritakan Raden Gatotkaca menyingsingkan kain bertaliwanda, ialah kain itu dibelitkan pada badan bagian belakang Raden Gatotkaca segera menepuk bahu dan menolakkan kakinya kebumi, terasa bumi itu mengeram di bawah kakinya. Mengawanlah ia keangkasa.
Wayang itu diujudkan sebagai terbang, ialah dijalan kain, dari kanan ke kiri, dibagian kelir atas beberapa kali lalu dicacakkan, ibarat berhenti di atas awan, dan dalang bercerita pula, Tersebutlah Raden Gatotkaca telah mengawan, setiba di angkasa terasa sebagai menginjak daratan, menyelam di awan biru, mengisah awan di hadapannya dan tertutuplah oleh awan di belakangnya, samar samar tertampak ia di pandangan orang. Sinar pakaian Gatotkaca yang kena sinar matahari sebagai kilat memburunya. Maka berhentilah kesatria Pringgadani di awan melintang, menghadap pada awan yang lain dengan melihat ke kanan dan ke kiri. Setelah hening pemandangan Gatotkaca, turunlah ia dari angkasa menuju ke bumi,
Adipati Karna waktu perang Baratayudha berperang tanding melawan Gatotkaca. Karna melepaskan senjata kunta Wijayadanu, kenalah Gatotkaca dengan senjata itu pada pusatnya. Setelah Gatotkaca kena panah itu jatuhlah Gatotkaca dari angkasa,, menjatuhi kereta kendaraan Karna, hingga hancur lebur kereta itu.
Tersebut dalam cerita, Raden Gatotkaca seorang kesatria yang tak pernah bersolek, hanya berpakaian bersahaja, jauh dari pada wanita. Tetapi setelah Gatotkaca melihat puteri Raden Arjuna, Dewi Pregiwa, waktu diiring oleh Raden Angkawijaya, Raden Gatotkaca jatuh hati lantaran melihat puteri itu berhias serba bersahaja. Berubah tingkah Raden. Gatotkaca ini diketahui oleh ibunya (Dewi Arimbi) dengan sukacita dan menuruti segala permintaan Raden Gatotkaca. Kemudian puteri ini diperisteri Raden Gatotkaca.

BENTUK WAYANG

Gatotkaca bermata telengan (membelalak), hidung dempak, berkumis dan beryanggut. Berjamang tiga susun, bersunting waderan, sanggul kadal-menek, bergaruda membelakang, berpraba, berkalung ulur-ulur, bergelang, berpontoh dan berkeroncong. Berkain kerajaan lengkap.
Gatotkaca berwanda 1 Guntur, 2 Kilat 3 Tatit. 4 Tatit sepuh, 5 Mega dan 6 Mendung.

Sedjarah Wayang Purwa, terbitan Balai Pustaka juga tahun 1965. Disusun oleh Pak Hardjowirogo.

Sekilas Tentang Cerita Ramayana

Prabu Dasaratha dari negeri Ayodya memiliki empat putra; Rama, Bharata, Laksmana dan Satrughna. Maka suatu hari seorang resi bernama Wiswamitra memohon bantuan Sri Paduka Dasaratha untuk menolongnya membebaskan pertapaannya dari serangan para raksasa. Maka Rama dan Laksamana berangkat.

Di pertapaan, Rama dan Laksmana menghabisi semua raksasa dan kemudian mereka menuju negeri Mithila di mana diadakan sebuah sayembara. Siapa menang dapat mendapat putri raja bernama Sita. Para peserta disuruh merentangkan busur panah yang menyertai kelahiran Sita. Tak seorangpun berhasil kecuali Rama, maka mereka pun menikah dan lalu kembali ke Ayodya.

Di Ayodya Rama suatu hari akan dipersiapkan dinobatkan sebagai raja, karena ia adalah putra sulung. Namun Kaikeyi, salah seorang istri raja Dasaratha yang bukan ibu Rama berakta bahwa sri baginda pernah berjanji bahwa Bharata lah yang akan menjadi raja. Maka dengan berat hati raja Dasaratha mengabulkannya karena memang pernah berjanji demikian. Kemudian Rama, Sita dan Laksmana pergi meninggalkan istana. Selang beberapa lama, raja Dasaratha meninggal dunia dan Bharata mencari mereka. Ia merasa tidak pantas menjadi raja dan meminta Rama untuk kembali. Tetapi Rama menolak dan memberikan sandalnya (bahasa Sansekerta: pâduka) kepada Bharata sebagai lambang kekuasaannya.

Relief Sita yang diculik. Relief ini terdapat di Candi Prambanan, Jawa Tengah.

Maka Rama, Sita dan Laksmana berada di hutan Dandaka. Di sana ada seorang raksasi bernama Surpanakha yang jatuh cinta kepada Laksmana dan ia menyamar menjadi wanita cantik. Tetapi Laksmana tak berhasil dibujuknya dan malahan akhirnya ujung hidungnya terpotong. Surpanakha marah dan mengadu kepada kakaknya sang Rahwana (Rawana) dan membujuknya untuk menculik Sita dan memperistrinya. Akhirnya Rahwana menyuruh Marica, seorang raksasa untuk menculik Sita. Lalu Marica bersiasat dan menyamar menjadi seekor kijang emas yang elok. Sita tertarik dan meminta suaminya untuk menangkapnya. Rama meninggalkan Sita bersama Laksmana dan pergi mengejar si kijang emas. Si kijang emas sangat gesit dan tak bisa ditangkap, akhirnya Sri Rama kesal dan memanahnya. Si kijang emas menjerit kesakitan berubah kembali menjadi seorang raksasa dan mati. Sita yang berada di kejauhan mengira yang menjerit adalah Rama dan menyuruh Laksamana mencarinya. Laksmana menolak tetapi akhirnya mau setelah diperolok-olok dan dituduh Sita bahwa ia ingin memilikinya. Akhirnya Sita ditinggal sendirian dan bisa diculik oleh Rahwana.

Teriakan Sita terdengar oleh burung Jatayu yang pernah berkawan dengan prabu Dasaratha dan ia berusaha menolong Sita. Tetapi Rahwana lebih kuat dan bisa mengalahkan Jatayu. Jatayu yang sekarat masih bisa melapor kepada Rama dan Laksmana bahwa Sita dibawa ke Lengka, kerajaan Rahwana.

Kemudian Rama dan Laksmana mencari kerajaan ini. Di suatu daerah mereka berjumpa dengan kera-kera dan seorang raja kera bernama Bali yang menculik istri kakaknya. Akhirnya Bali bisa dibunuh dan istrinya dikembalikan ke Sugriwa dan Sugriwa bersedia membantu Rama. Akhirnya dengan pertolongan bala tentara kera yang dipimpin Hanuman, mereka berhasil membunuh Rahwana dan membebaskan Sita. Sita lalu diboyong kembali ke Ayodya dan Rama dinobatkan menjadi raja.

Sumber dari wikipedia.org ( Ensiklopedia Bebas )

"Kakawin Ramayana"


ISTILAH PEWAYANGAN

Istilah Pewayangan

Berikut ini adalah sebutan yang digunakan dalam dunia pewayangan:

  1. Begawan adalah sebutan untuk seorang pendeta yang berasal dari raja yang meninggalkan kerajaan.
  2. Batara atau Betara adalah sebutan untuk tokoh wayang yang berjiwa Ketuhanan, dan merupakan titisan Dewa.
  3. Dahyang: sama dengan sebutan Pendeta.
  4. Dewa: sebutan untuk tokoh wayang yang berjiwa Ketuhanan.
  5. Dewi: sebutan untuk seorang puteri kerajaan atau sebutan untuk dewa perempuan
  6. Yanggan : sebutan rendahan dari tokoh Wasi.
  7. Resi : sebutan untuk seorang yang suci.
  8. Sang: awalan sebutan yang luhur.
  9. Pandita : sebutan seorang yang luhur jiwanya.
  10. Wara : sebutan seorang yang tersohor, baik laki-laki atau perempuan.
  11. Wasi sebutan seorang pendeta yang agak rendahan.
  12. Putut : sebutan seorang murid atau pelayan pendeta.
  13. Cekel: hamba seorang pendeta yang dianggap keluarga.
  14. Cantrik : hamba atau anak murid pendeta.
  15. Prabu : sebutan seorang raja.

Sumber : http://wayangku.wordpress.com/